Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer starts in the thyroid gland and can be defined as the growth of thyroid cells into abnormal cells. The thyroid glands are a small system of glands in the lower neck that produce hormones to manage the body's metabolism.

Thyroid cancer usually does not initially show symptoms but can be diagnosed when a lump is noticed in the neck. However, some patients may also experience symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, sore throat or shortness of breath.

The lethality of thyroid cancer can vary depending on the type and stage. When detected early, the chances of cure are high and many patients make a full recovery.

Thyroid cancer is a type of cancer that originates in the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck just below the Adam's apple. This gland is crucial for regulating the body's metabolism through the production of thyroid hormones. Thyroid cancer is relatively uncommon, but its incidence has been increasing globally.

It typically presents with a lump or nodule in the thyroid region, and may be associated with changes in voice, difficulty swallowing, or neck pain. Diagnosis often involves a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies like ultrasound, and sometimes a biopsy.

The majority of thyroid cancers are highly treatable and often curable, especially when detected early. Treatment options include surgery, radioactive iodine treatment, thyroid hormone therapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, chemotherapy. Regular monitoring is essential to manage and prevent potential recurrence.

What Are The Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer?

The symptoms of thyroid cancer can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the cancer. However, some common symptoms include:

  1. Lump or Nodule in the Neck: One of the most noticeable signs of thyroid cancer is the presence of a lump or nodule in the neck, often felt through the skin.
  2. Changes in Voice: Since the thyroid gland is located near the voice box, changes in voice such as hoarseness or other voice alterations can be a symptom.
  3. Difficulty Swallowing: As the thyroid gland is also near the esophagus, thyroid cancer can cause difficulty or discomfort in swallowing.
  4. Neck Pain: Pain in the neck or throat area, sometimes extending up to the ears, can be a symptom.
  5. Persistent Cough: A cough that does not seem related to a cold or other respiratory issues and persists can be an indicator.
  6. Swollen Lymph Nodes: Swollen lymph nodes in the neck can be a sign of thyroid cancer.
  7. Breathing Problems: In advanced cases, the cancer might cause breathing problems if it grows large enough to press on the windpipe.

It's important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other, less serious conditions. Many thyroid nodules, for example, are not cancerous. If you experience any of these symptoms, especially if they persist or worsen over time, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis. Early detection of thyroid cancer often leads to more effective treatment.

Is Thyroid Cancer Curable?

Yes, thyroid cancer is often curable, especially when it is diagnosed early. The curability of thyroid cancer depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the cancer, the patient's age, and overall health. Here are some key points to consider:

  1. High Cure Rates: The most common types of thyroid cancer, such as papillary and follicular thyroid cancers, have very high cure rates. These types tend to grow slowly and are usually treatable.
  2. Early Detection is Key: As with many cancers, early detection of thyroid cancer significantly improves the likelihood of a successful cure. When found early, thyroid cancer is usually localized within the thyroid gland and can often be completely removed with surgery.
  3. Treatment Options: Treatment for thyroid cancer typically involves surgery to remove the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), which may be followed by radioactive iodine treatment to destroy any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, thyroid hormone therapy is also used to replace the hormones the thyroid gland would normally produce and to help prevent the cancer from returning.
  4. Monitoring After Treatment: After initial treatment, ongoing monitoring is important to check for any signs of cancer recurrence. This can include regular physical exams, blood tests, and imaging tests.
  5. Variable Prognosis Depending on Type: While the most common types of thyroid cancer have high cure rates, some less common types like medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancer can be more aggressive and harder to treat.
  6. Overall Health Impact: While treatable, thyroid cancer and its treatment can have an impact on overall health. For instance, after thyroidectomy, patients typically need to take thyroid hormone replacement therapy for life.

It's always important for individuals diagnosed with thyroid cancer to discuss their specific case, treatment options, and prognosis with their healthcare provider to understand their individual situation.

What Are The Risk Factors of Thyroid Cancer?

Several risk factors are associated with an increased likelihood of developing thyroid cancer. Understanding these risk factors can help in identifying individuals who may be at higher risk and might benefit from more vigilant monitoring. The main risk factors include:

  1. Gender: Women are more likely to develop thyroid cancer than men. The reasons for this gender difference are not entirely clear but may be related to hormonal factors.
  2. Age: While thyroid cancer can occur at any age, it is most commonly diagnosed in people aged 25 to 65. The type of thyroid cancer can also vary with age.
  3. Exposure to Radiation: People who have been exposed to high levels of radiation are at a greater risk for thyroid cancer. This includes radiation from medical treatments, especially in childhood, and radiation exposure from nuclear plant accidents or weapons.
  4. Family History: A family history of thyroid cancer or thyroid diseases can increase the risk. Certain genetic syndromes that run in families, such as familial medullary thyroid cancer or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), also increase the risk.
  5. Personal History of Goiter or Thyroid Disease: Individuals with a history of goiter (enlarged thyroid) or other thyroid conditions may have a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer.
  6. Iodine Deficiency: In some studies, a diet low in iodine, a mineral essential for thyroid health, has been linked to an increased risk of follicular thyroid cancers. However, this is more relevant in areas where iodine deficiency is common.
  7. Certain Hereditary Conditions: Some inherited genetic mutations can increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer. For example, changes in the RET gene are associated with an increased risk of medullary thyroid cancer.
  8. Obesity: Some research suggests that obesity may be linked to an increased risk of thyroid cancer.

It's important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not mean that a person will definitely develop thyroid cancer. Many people with one or more risk factors never develop the disease, while others who develop thyroid cancer may have no known risk factors. Regular medical checkups and discussing any concerns with a healthcare provider can help in early detection and treatment, if necessary.

Possible Treatment Options for Thyroid Cancer?

The treatment options for thyroid cancer depend on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Here are the most common treatment methods:

  1. Surgery:
    • Thyroidectomy: The most common treatment for thyroid cancer is surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid gland. A total thyroidectomy removes the entire gland, while a partial thyroidectomy (or lobectomy) removes part of it.
    • Lymph Node Removal: If the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the neck, these may also be removed during surgery.
  2. Radioactive Iodine Treatment:
    • After a thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine therapy is often used. This treatment involves swallowing a radioactive iodine capsule or liquid, which is absorbed by thyroid cells and any remaining cancer cells, destroying them. This method is particularly effective because thyroid cells naturally absorb iodine.
  3. Thyroid Hormone Therapy:
    • Following thyroidectomy, patients usually require lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy to perform the functions of the missing thyroid gland.
    • High doses of thyroid hormone may also be used to prevent the growth of any remaining cancer cells.
  4. External Radiation Therapy:
    • This treatment uses high-energy rays or particles to destroy cancer cells. It's not commonly used for initial treatment of thyroid cancer but may be used for certain types of thyroid cancer or if the cancer returns.
  5. Chemotherapy:
    • Chemotherapy, which uses drugs to kill cancer cells, is not commonly used for thyroid cancer but may be considered in advanced cases, especially if the cancer does not respond to radioactive iodine treatment.
  6. Targeted Drug Therapy:
    • Targeted therapies focus on specific abnormalities in cancer cells. For certain types of advanced thyroid cancer that don't respond to radioactive iodine treatment, targeted therapies might be an option.
  7. Clinical Trials:
    • Participation in clinical trials for new treatments can be an option for some patients with thyroid cancer.
  8. Supportive Care:
    • Treatments to manage symptoms and maintain well-being are also an important part of care for thyroid cancer.

The choice of treatment is highly individual and depends on many factors. It's important for patients to discuss the risks and benefits of each treatment option with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for their specific situation. Regular follow-up care is crucial to monitor for cancer recurrence or potential side effects of treatments.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ogün ErşenDate of birth 10.11.1987 Education and Expertise Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Kocatepe University Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Konya Health Sciences University Professional Interests: Obesity (fatness) surgery and metabolic surgery Laparoscopic reflux surgery Laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries Gastric balloon application ERCP, EMR, ESD (Advanced Endoscopic procedures) Laparoscopic pancreatic cancer surgery Laparoscopic gastric and intestinal cancer surgeries Hemorrhoid surgeries Perianal fistula surgeries Laparoscopic abdominal and inguinal hernia surgeries Oncoplastic Breast cancer surgeries Natural cancer surgery (NOSE) Thyroid cancer and goiter surgeries. Memberships to Scientific Organizations Turkish Surgery Association Turkish Obesity Surgery Association Surgical Oncology Association National Society of Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery He is a member of the Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Association. Courses and Certificates: Turkish surgical association proficiency exam (Board) certificate of achievement in 2018 He has more than 100 papers presented in national and international congresses and more than 50 articles published in international journals. Foreign language English
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