Uterıne And Cervıcal Cancer


Uterıne And Cervıcal Cancer

Cancer of the uterus and cervix are two different types of cancer in the female reproductive system. 

Uterine cancer is a treatable cancer if detected in the early stages. Symptoms include bleeding other than menstruation, vaginal discharge, pelvic pain and painful sexual intercourse. Treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Cervical cancer is usually caused by the HPV virus. Symptoms include vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge and painful intercourse. Similar to uterine cancer, treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The HPV vaccine is an effective method of preventing cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer and uterine cancer develop only a few centimeters from each other. However, the causes of these diseases are very different from each other. As a result, treatment methods also differ in many ways.

Human papillomavirus (HPV), an infection known to be transmitted through sexual intercourse, is the most important factor causing cervical cancer. Cervical cancer occurs in the cells in the lower part of the uterus that connect the cervix to the vagina.

It is known that uterine cancer, also known as "endometrial carcinoma", and "uterine cancer" usually arises from cells of the uterine mucosa.

In this article, you can read about the symptoms and early detection of uterine and cervical cancer and the types of uterine and cervical cancer. In the following part of the article, you can read about the treatment options for uterine and cervical cancer. In the final part, we will mention prevention and risk reduction strategies for uterine and cervical cancer as well as lifestyle changes for uterine and cervical cancer.

Symptoms and Early Detection of Uterine and Cervical Cancer

Symptoms of uterine cancer include:

  • Vaginal bleeding between premenopausal periods
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting after menopause
  • Lower abdominal pain or cramping in your pelvis, just below your abdomen
  • Detection of thin white or clear vaginal discharge if you are postmenopausal
  • Heavy or frequent vaginal bleeding if you are over 40 years old

Symptoms of cervical cancer include:

  • Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between menstrual periods, or after menopause, as well as pain or pelvic pain during intercourse.
  • Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that can be heavy and foul-smelling

Early detection of uterine cancer and cervical cancer is extremely important as it is for all types of cancer.

Types of Uterine and Cervical Cancer

Uterine cancer is known as the most common type of cancer affecting the female reproductive system. Uterine cancer has two main types.

  • Endometrial cancer: The most common type is uterine cancer. It accounts for more than 90 percent of uterine cancers. It develops in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus.
  • Uterine sarcoma: It occurs in the muscles or other tissues of the uterus. This type of uterine cancer is much rarer.

The most common type of cervical cancer is known as squamous cell cancer. There are two main types of cervical cancer.

  • Squamous cell cancer: Squamous cells are skin-like cells that line the outer surface of the cervix. Up to 80% of diagnosed cervical cancers are squamous cell cancers. 
  • Adenocarcinoma: Adenocarcinoma is known as a type of cancer that starts in the mucus-producing gland cells. Adenocarcinoma is less common than squamous cell cancer.

Treatment Options for Uterine and Cervical Cancer

There are different treatment options for uterine and cervical cancer.

Some of the treatment options for uterine cancer can be lined up as below:

  • Chemotherapy: It is a method in which drugs are used to destroy cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy: In which radiation beams are used to destroy cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy: It is another common treatment to cure cancer.
  • Immunotherapy: It helps your immune system to fight against uterine cancer

Some of the treatment options for cervical cancer can be lined up as below:

  • Surgery: Surgery is one of the most common treatments for cervical cancer.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy is also known as a very common cancer treatment.
  • Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is a method that uses high-energy X-rays to kill cervical cancer cells.
  • Chemoradiotherapy: Chemodatiotherapy is a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

If you have more questions, please do not hesitate to ask about treatment options at Ekol International Hospitals' oncology clinic. Our patient support staff will be happy to help you.

Prevention and Risk Reduction Strategies for Uterine and Cervical Cancer

  • Do not use tobacco: Tobacco types are seen as a very risky for cancer types such as lung, mouth, larynx, larynx, pancreatic, bladder, cervix, and kidney cancer. You can get information about smoking cessation products and other methods of quitting from the experts working in the relevant clinics for smoking cessation.
  • Eat healthily: A healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains will protect you against cancer types. The Mediterranean diet is the best in this regard. Avoid processed foods. Take alcohol in moderation.
  • Exercise regularly: Exercise regularly and take care to keep your weight within a certain range. This makes you stronger against cancer.
  • Get vaccinated: The vaccine is a very strong shield, especially for cancer types like cervical cancer caused by HPV.

Lifestyle Changes Uterine and Cervical Cancer

Coping with cancer is a difficult task for patients and families. Supportive care is important at that stage. Every cancer treatment has possible side effects and these can cause both physical and psychological changes in every single person. Staging of cancer is one of the main factors for treatment. Since the situation of each patient is different, the same result may not be obtained even if the same treatment is carried out. For this reason, cancer treatment should be considered as a long and diverse process. Talking to your surgeon about the course of your health is an effective form of motivation. They will want to know if the treatments have any side effects and offer new solutions accordingly. Additionally, you can receive palliative care, if your medical expert considers it necessary.

Safe sex and getting vaccinated are important steps to avoid uterine and especially cervical cancer. Having a healthy diet and regular exercise are also strong tools for preventing uterine and cervical cancer.



Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ogün Erşen Date of birth 10.11.1987 Education and Expertise Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Kocatepe University Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Konya Health Sciences University Professional Interests: Obesity (fatness) surgery and metabolic surgery Laparoscopic reflux surgery Laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries Gastric balloon application ERCP, EMR, ESD (Advanced Endoscopic procedures) Laparoscopic pancreatic cancer surgery Laparoscopic gastric and intestinal cancer surgeries Hemorrhoid surgeries Perianal fistula surgeries Laparoscopic abdominal and inguinal hernia surgeries Oncoplastic Breast cancer surgeries Natural cancer surgery (NOSE) Thyroid cancer and goiter surgeries. Memberships to Scientific Organizations Turkish Surgery Association Turkish Obesity Surgery Association Surgical Oncology Association National Society of Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery He is a member of the Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Association. Courses and Certificates: Turkish surgical association proficiency exam (Board) certificate of achievement in 2018 He has more than 100 papers presented in national and international congresses and more than 50 articles published in international journals. Foreign language English
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