Urinary Bladder Cancer


Urinary Bladder Cancer

The bladder is an organ where urine is stored and emptied, and this cancer usually starts in the epithelial cells inside the bladder. Bladder cancer usually presents with symptoms such as difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, pain or burning sensation.


Bladder cancer can occur at any age, but on average it is more common in people aged 65 and over. It is also more common in men than in women.


These symptoms can be a sign of many diseases of the urinary tract, but they can also indicate a serious condition, including bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can often be asymptomatic in the early stages, so periodic medical check-ups are recommended.


Bladder cancer is caused by abnormal tissue growth in the bladder lining. Sometimes it can be seen that the tumor has spread to the bladder muscle. Blood in the urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. In this case, it is recommended to apply to the nearest health institution.

Bladder cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that starts in the lining of your bladder. There are many forms of treatment for bladder cancer, including surgery. Continuity of treatment is important because bladder cancer is known to be at risk of coming back.

In this article, you will read about the types and stages of urinary bladder cancer and the causes and risk factors of urinary bladder cancer first. In the second part, we will mention the symptoms and early detection of urinary bladder cancer, treatment options, and lifestyle changes, and supportive care for urinary bladder cancer.

Types and Stages of Urinary Bladder Cancer

As it is for all cancer types, there are several types and stages of urinary bladder cancer. These types and staging for urinary bladder cancer can be lined up as below:

  • The most common type of bladder cancer is early bladder cancer. At this stage, the cancerous cells are located in the lining of the bladder and are defined as non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • When cancer spreads to the bladder muscle, it is called muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • If bladder cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it is known as metastatic bladder cancer.

What type of urinary bladder cancer and the stage of cancer patients have will be determinative of the treatment stage for the patient. Your treatment options will be decided by the surgeon according to this information.

Causes and Risk Factors of Urinary Bladder Cancer

The causes of bladder cancer are not fully understood. However, as in all types of cancer, there are some risk factors for bladder cancer as well as ways for prevention.

  • Cigarette smoke: Smoking tobacco products such as cigarettes, cigars, and pipes more than doubles your risk of developing bladder cancer. The biggest risk factor for bladder cancer is smoking because tobacco contains cancer-causing chemicals.
  • Radiation and chemotherapy: Radiation therapy or other forms of radiation exposure, as well as chemotherapy drugs, can increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Chemicals: Studies have shown that people with certain chemicals in the working environment, such as in the textile sector, have a high risk of bladder cancer. However, these substances have been banned for a while due to their cancer effect.

Symptoms and Early Detection of Urinary Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer with a high rate of early detection since having obvious symptoms such as blood in the urine causes the person to go to a health institution. Surveillance is an important factor for early detection. Some of the symptoms of urinary bladder cancer can be lined up as below:

  • Blood in the urine: The presence of blood in the urine is considered the first sign of bladder cancer. urine may be normal for a long time, but if a person has bladder cancer, blood will appear again.
  • The need to urinate very often
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Having to get up to urinate during the night

There are also advanced bladder cancer symptoms such as the inability to urinate,

loss of appetite, feeling tired, bone pain and swelling in the feet.

Treatment Options for Urinary Bladder Cancer

Treatment options for bladder cancer vary depending on how advanced the cancer is.Clinical trials are also being continued in that field. There are different treatment methods for early-stage, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, and more advanced muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Early diagnosis for urinary bladder cancer is as important as it is for other cancer types. Your doctor will talk to you about every detail including the prognosis and recurrence risk of urinary bladder cancer in your condition.

  • Surgery: Surgery is carried out to remove the cancer cells as a treatment for urinary bladder cancer
  • Chemotherapy in the Bladder: It is applied in cancer cases that remain in the bladder but have a high risk of recurrence or progression to a further stage.
  • Radiation Therapy: It is a preferred bladder cancer treatment to destroy cancer cells as the primary treatment when surgery cannot be performed.
  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy is a form of treatment that aims to strengthen the body's immune system to fight cancer cells and is also used against bladder cancer.
  • Targeted therapy: It is a method used when other treatment methods do not work in advanced cancer cases.

 In line with your doctor's decision, all treatment options can be used to support each other. 

Lifestyle Changes and Supportive Care for Urinary Bladder Cancer

It can be said that the main factors for supportive care for urinary bladder cancer are not quite different from what is suggested for other cancer types. In addition, lifestyle change is a key point to fight against cancer including bladder cancer. 

  • Communication with the doctor and other health personnel after cancer treatment is an important support point for the patient. Every survivor has individual concerns and challenges. The main points of an effective struggle can be listed as follows:
  • Analyze what the challenge is
  • Trying to find solutions to problems
  • Asking for support from others and taking it as normal
  • Developing a new lifestyle

Additionally, you can receive palliative care, if your medical expert considers it necessary.



Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ogün ErşenDate of birth 10.11.1987 Education and Expertise Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Kocatepe University Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Konya Health Sciences University Professional Interests: Obesity (fatness) surgery and metabolic surgery Laparoscopic reflux surgery Laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries Gastric balloon application ERCP, EMR, ESD (Advanced Endoscopic procedures) Laparoscopic pancreatic cancer surgery Laparoscopic gastric and intestinal cancer surgeries Hemorrhoid surgeries Perianal fistula surgeries Laparoscopic abdominal and inguinal hernia surgeries Oncoplastic Breast cancer surgeries Natural cancer surgery (NOSE) Thyroid cancer and goiter surgeries. Memberships to Scientific Organizations Turkish Surgery Association Turkish Obesity Surgery Association Surgical Oncology Association National Society of Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery He is a member of the Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Association. Courses and Certificates: Turkish surgical association proficiency exam (Board) certificate of achievement in 2018 He has more than 100 papers presented in national and international congresses and more than 50 articles published in international journals. Foreign language English
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