In Ekol Hospitals Chest Diseases Department, polyclinic procedures, respiratory function tests, allergy tests, bronchoscope procedures and modern treatment methods for the diagnosis of all lung diseases are applied by the experienced and expert staff in their field with the latest approaches.

Pulmonary diseases belong to a group of conditions that affect the respitatory system and one of our most vital organs - the lungs. Lungs are in charge of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and bloodstream.  It’s a regular order, and when this order is disturbed, problems and diseases occur.

Bronchoscopy Unit

The bronchoscopy unit is a medical studying area that specializes om bronchoscopy procedures. This studying area focuses on airways and lungs. It plays an essential role while the diagnosis and treatment of lung disorders.

To diagnose, a flexible medical instrument called a bronchoscope is used by professionals. Generally, these three types of diseases are researched in the bronchoscopy unit:

  • Airway diseases 
  • Lung tissue diseases
  • Lung circulation diseases 

COPD & Obstructive Lung Diseases

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic and continuous lung disease that affects the air passages - making breathing harder for the patient. When the bronchi are blocked, breathing becomes difficult. Almost all obstructive lung diseases stem from this blockage.

COPD is mostly generated by smoking and heavy smoking. The factors can be listed like these:

  • Smoking & Heavy Smoking: The harmful materials in tobacco damage the air passages & lung tissue.
  • Environment: Being exposed to factors such as heavy dust, chemicals, and air pollution may increase the risk of COPD.

In some rare cases, a mutation of a certain protein may be the reason for COPD. 

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Allergic Lung Diseases

The disease range of allergic lung diseases is wide. However, the diagnosis and treatment process is almost the same and may differ in specific cases:

  • Researching medical history: Your medical-medicational and other symptoms will be researched by the doctors.
  • Physical examination: Lungs can be seen by scanning, and other pulmonary function tests are mostly done to diagnose. In some cases, an allergy test may be needed. 

During the treatment, some medications such as anti-allergens are prescribed to prevent allergens to trigger your symptoms.

Chronic Cough

Chronic cough is a continual cough that lasts for more than 2-3 months. Chronic cough may refer to other underlying diseases or conditions, and an important sign. It affects the quality of life. The potential reasons can be listed as:

  • Asthma: Chronic cough may be a sign of asthma in the early period.
  • GERD: The stomach acid that rises to the esophagus may trigger a chronic cough. 
  • Medications: Chronic cough is considered a side effect of certain medications. 


Pneumonia means an infection that caused the lungs to fill with fluid. Infections can be caused by viruses, fungal factors, and bacteria. The severity of pneumonia can range from light to severe. The risk of pneumonia is high in patients that have weak immune systems.

The symptoms can be listed as:

  • Progressive cough and severe 
  • Fever
  • Weakness 
  • Pain in the chest during breathing 

The treatment of pneumonia depends on the severity of the disease. Different medications and supportive lifestyle changes are essential during the treatment.


Pleurisy or pleuritis is a disease caused by inflammation in the pleura - which is a membrane that lines both the inside and outside of our lungs. It can be caused by:

  • Infections: Various infections such as pneumonia can cause pleurisy.
  • Medications: Pleurisy can be a side effect of certain medications.

Chest pain is the most common and visible sign of pleurisy, and can be worsened by coughing, sneezing, or any breath-related movement. Fever may also be seen since infections can cause it.


Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease that can affect various organs in the body - mostly the lungs. The exact reason for sarcoidosis is unknown, but its believed that it is an abnormal immune response of the body, and may be genetics. 

The symptoms of this disease include fatigue, chronic cough, chest, and joint pain. However, it is mostly hard to diagnose sarcoidosis. It requires detailed research of medical and medication history, blood & scanning, and biopsy. 


Pneumothorax is a disease that means the escape of air in the lungs. This air escapes to the outside, mostly to the space between our lungs and chest wall. This causes difficulty during breathing and chest pain. There is 4 type of pneumothorax, and they have common symptoms:

  • Sudden chest pain 
  • Rapid heart rate & breathing 
  • Heavy coughing
  • Difficulty in breathing

To diagnose, physical examinations, blood and gas tests are used - along with the scans. The treatment is generally shaped according to the symptoms. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment for pneumothorax. 

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) happens when the blood clot travels through the bloodstream and squashes into the pulmonary arteries - causing the blockage of blood to the lung. It is considered a serious disease. 

The most common cause of PE is deep vein thrombosis - DVT. Other factors can be listed as:

  • Recent risky surgery - especially if it is related to orthopedics or abdominal. 
  • Trauma or severe injury 
  • Cancer
  • Hormonal medications  
  • Smoking

The symptoms are various. but can be listed as:

  • Sudden shortness of breath 
  • Cough - sometimes with blood
  • Chest pain

The diagnosis and treatment are generally shaped according to the patient’s needs. Blood and scanning must be done, and treatment should be watched carefully.

Respiratory Physiotherapy

Respiratory physiotherapy or pulmonary rehabilitation is a medical studying area that focuses on improving the functionality of the respiratory system. It aims for relieving the patients’ conditions by using different and effective techniques. These techniques are:

  • Exercises for Breathing: It is essential to improve conditions for air exchange and lung capacity by using different methods.
  • Emotional Support and Counseling: Apart from physical exercises, patients should be supported by mental and emotional guidance. 

Respiratory Function Tests In Respiratory Physiology Laboratory Unit

The respiratory functions test is set that includes learning the capacity of the respiratory system of the patient. They are providing needed information about the lungs and the overall situation of respiratory health. 

  • Spirometry: It is a test that measures airflow and lung volumes. With the help of a spirometer, the levels of airflow and capacity can be tested.
  • Lung Volumes and Capacities: This test provides the size and flow of the air in the lungs.

During the tests, the instructions are provided by the professionals. These tests are mostly light, however, some patients may feel discomfort which would end after the tests. 

Smoking Addiction

Smoking addiction is a type of addiction that comes first to mind when we talk about the pulmonary diseases. Quitting smoking is essential and the most effective method to reduce the risk of these diseases. 

  • For example, COPD is mostly generated by heavy smoking addiction since tobacco includes highly harmful chemicals. 
  • Apart from COPD, smoking may lead to lung cancer. Again, these highly harmful chemicals affect the lungs and damage the lung cells - leading to the unruly growth in the cancerous cells.

Reducing and quitting smoking addiction, in the end, may be challenging because of the nicotine, but you can seek professional mental and physical help from certain facilities. Quitting smoking helps prevent and reduce those pulmonary diseases. 

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder that shows itself by progressive interruptions of breathing while sleeping. These apneas -interruptions- occur when the muscles that are in the back of the throat dysfunctioning by failing the keeping air passages open. 

Sleep apnea can be seen in all ages - but is mostly seen in older adults and overweight people. The most common symptom is loud and progressive snoring which can cause discomfort for both patient and their families. Therefore, it is important to seek professional help to treat sleep apnea.


Spec. Dr. Şenay Çitim TurgutShe studied medicine between 2000-2006. She graduated from Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in 2006 ranking first. In 2007, she started to work as an assistant at Ege University Faculty of Medicine Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis Clinic. She received her expertise in 2013 from Ege University Faculty of Medicine Chest Medicine Department with her thesis titled "Comparison of non-invasive mechanical ventilator and oxygen therapy activities applied simultaneously with pulmonary rehabilitation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". She was a participant and trainer in the field of chest diseases in many congresses and meetings in Turkey and abroad. She is a member of European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Turkish Thoracic Society (TTS), Turkey Respiratory Research Association. In 2010, she received the Ege University-Ministry of Health Good Clinical Practices certificate, the Ministry of Health Cessation Intervention Course certificate in 2012, and Polysomnography (sleep test) certificates in 2016. She speaks English fluently. Domain Knowledge: COPD - Pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients Balloon treatment in COPD (Broncho muco cleaner balloon method) Asthma Lung cancer Pneumonia Smoking cessation treatment Sleep Apnoea (Polysomnography test and evaluation) Pulmonary embolism Interstitial lung diseases Tuberculosis Pleural effusion (thoracentesis for diagnosis and treatment - pleural fluid intake-application) Pneumothorax treatment (Chest tube-tube thoracostomy closed underwater drainage application) Bronchoscopy: It is most commonly used for pathological diagnosis in Lung Cancer. In addition, prolonged voice without any pathology in the vocal cords with a cough that lasted more than 3 weeks without any diagnosis (allergy, reflux, sinusitis) in determining the location of bleeding for patients who were found to have an abnormal appearance on chest X-ray and could not be diagnosed with other methods, and patients who had bloody sputum. Diagnosis and treatment are performed by performing bronchoscopy in patients with hoarseness, suspicion of foreign body escape to the lung, intense and viscous lung secretion in the airways and related atelectasis (lung extinction). Most often, bronchoscopy is performed on patients for pathological diagnosis, especially in lung cancer. In COPD patients, which is a new method, the enlargement and cleaning of the airways is performed bronchoscopically with the broncho muco cleaner balloon method. Respiratory function tests Exhaled carbon monoxide measurement Allergy tests
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