Prostate Cancer


Prostate Cancer

The prostate is the name given to the walnut-sized gland that nourishes sperm and produces semen. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Prostate cancer usually grows slowly and does not extend beyond the prostate gland. However, some types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Prostate cancer is dangerous, but it may not always be life-threatening. The earlier the prostate cancer is diagnosed, the better the chance of recovery. If you are over the age of 50 and have a family history of prostate cancer, it is recommended that you do not neglect your regular check-ups.

In this article, we will mention the causes of prostate cancer and the types of prostate cancer first. In the second part of the article, you can read about the symptoms and early detection of prostate cancer. In the final part of the article, there are subtitles such as treatment options for prostate cancer and lifestyle modifications for prostate cancer.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

It is not known exactly what causes prostate cells to become cancerous and the causes of prostate cancer. The slow growth of prostate cancer is an advantage and is often diagnosed before it has spread to other parts of the body.

There are some risk factors for prostate cancer as it is for all cancer types. Some of these risk factors can be lined up as below:

  • Age: Age is one of the most important risk factors. You are more likely to be diagnosed if you are over 50. About 65% of prostate cancers occur in people over the age of 60.
  • Ethnicity: If you are black, you are at greater risk. You have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer before the age of 50.
  • Family history: If there has been a prostate cancer story in your family, you are also at greater risk for prostate cancer.

Types of Prostate Cancer

The type of prostate cancer is determined according to which cell type the cancer begins. Doctors also divide prostate cancer into three: local, locally advanced, and advanced. The size of the cancer is also an important factor. Based on this information, a treatment is developed. 

Types of prostate cancer can be lined up as below:

  • Adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Adenocarcinomas are known as the most common type of prostate cancer. Almost all prostate cancers fall under this type. Adenocarcinomas develop in gland cells that contain the prostate gland and the tubes of the prostate gland.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate: It usually starts in the bladder and travels from there to the prostate. However, it can rarely be the other way around. Transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate occurs in the cells that line the tube that carries urine out of the body.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: It develops in flat cells lining the prostate. They can spread more rapidly than adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Small cell prostate cancer: It can be described as a neuroendocrine cancer. It grows faster than other types of prostate cancer.

Symptoms and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer often shows no symptoms early on. As it progresses, some symptoms may occur. Some of the symptoms of prostate cancer can be lined up as below:

  • If you feel pain while peeing
  • If you feel the need to go to the toilet frequently at night
  • Loss of bowel control
  • If you feel pain in the back, hip, or chest
  • If you have painful ejaculation
  • If you have blood in your semen

Early detection of prostate cancer is not easy but is a lifesaver. That’s why after a certain age, you must go to a local hospital for regular check-ups.

Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer

Not all cases of prostate cancer require treatment. For prostate cancer at an early stage, your doctor may prefer active surveillance. Treatment options for prostate cancer depend on the patient’s age and general health. Supportive care is also an option. They will tell you about the prognosis of your condition as well. 

Some of the most common treatments for prostate cancer can be lined up below:

  • Surgical removal: The patient’s prostate is removed by a surgeon in a prostate surgery procedure
  • Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is used alone or combined with hormone therapy.
  • Hormone therapy: Male sex hormone is known to increase cancer growth. To prevent this, some drugs are used and the male sex hormone level is lowered.
  • Focal therapy: Focal therapy is a new form of treatment and aims to destroy tumors in your prostate. This treatment can be used in cases where the cancer has not yet spread. It is still being considered as an experimental treatment.

If cancer has spread to other parts of the body and cannot be cured, treatment focuses on prolonging life and relieving symptoms.

If you like to learn more about prostate cancer treatment options at our oncology clinic, please do not hesitate to contact our patient help service.

Lifestyle Modifications for Prostate Cancer

There may not be prevention from risk factors all the time, but diagnosis and treatment are possible in a short time thanks to early and frequent screening.

Lifestyle changes can reduce the risk of getting prostate cancer, even if you are in risk groups. Some advice for a healthier lifestyle can be lined up as below:

  •  Consume less trans fat and saturated fat. Omega-3 from nuts, seeds, and fish is a very good option for a healthier life.
  • Avoid charred meat that is roasted or grilled. There is a risk of cancer in this food.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight can significantly reduce the risk of cancer.
  • Taking vitamin D will make you stronger against prostate cancer.
  • Exercise regularly.


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ogün Erşen Date of birth 10.11.1987 Education and Expertise Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine Kocatepe University Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Konya Health Sciences University Professional Interests: Obesity (fatness) surgery and metabolic surgery Laparoscopic reflux surgery Laparoscopic gallbladder surgeries Gastric balloon application ERCP, EMR, ESD (Advanced Endoscopic procedures) Laparoscopic pancreatic cancer surgery Laparoscopic gastric and intestinal cancer surgeries Hemorrhoid surgeries Perianal fistula surgeries Laparoscopic abdominal and inguinal hernia surgeries Oncoplastic Breast cancer surgeries Natural cancer surgery (NOSE) Thyroid cancer and goiter surgeries. Memberships to Scientific Organizations Turkish Surgery Association Turkish Obesity Surgery Association Surgical Oncology Association National Society of Endoscopic Laparoscopic Surgery He is a member of the Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery Association. Courses and Certificates: Turkish surgical association proficiency exam (Board) certificate of achievement in 2018 He has more than 100 papers presented in national and international congresses and more than 50 articles published in international journals. Foreign language English
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