Our Infectious Diseases and Microbiology unit works in coordination with all other branches in the field, ranging from flu to meningitis, from urinary tract infections to hepatitis, and from food poisonings to parasitic diseases. It also manages hospital infections, preventive studies and related issues as well as patient and staff trainings.

Infectious disease and microbiology are medical studying areas that mainly focus on microorganisms. These microorganisms can include different bacteria, fungi, parasites, bacteria, and other types of pathogens.

The microbiology area researches microorganisms, their functions, classifications, and more; meanwhile, infectious diseases specialists diagnose and treat these microorganism-related infectious diseases such as COVID-19 which became a pandemic in 2020. They do experiments, research in laboratories, and analyze them to use to develop new techniques. 

Hematology - Complete Blood Cell Count

Hematology is a medical studying area that focuses on blood and blood-related disorders. A complete blood cell count is required to diagnose and create a proper treatment for these diseases.

A complete blood cell count is a blood test that is conducted on the:

  • Red blood cells (RBC): CBC on them provide essential information about number, size, and shape.
  • White blood cells (WBC): CBC on them provides needed pieces of information about lymphocytes, neutrophils, and more.
  • Platelets: CBC on them provides a total count of platelets and they are needed for blood clotting. The abnormalities on the platelets may be the reason for bone marrow-related diseases and bleeding disorders. 


Microbiology is a medical studying area that focuses on microorganisms, as mentioned in the introduction. These microorganisms may be viruses, fungi, or parasites and microbiology plays an important role to diagnose and treat these microorganism-related diseases.

  • Urinary: Urinary area of microbiology concentrate on urinary tract infection (UTIs) and urinary-related diseases. They are mostly caused by viruses, fungi, or bacterial infections in all ages and genders. The weakened immune systems, blood diseases, and infections may be the other reasons. They need to be researched and treat effectively.
  • Throat: Throat microbiology is a studying area that focuses on microorganisms around the throat, mostly the back of the throat named the oropharynx. The microorganisms can be bacteria, viruses, or fungi around the throat and they can cause infections. On the other hand, some beneficial microorganisms provide order in the throat.
  • Ear: Ear microbiology is a studying area that focuses on microorganisms around the ear and its parts including the external & middle ear. Generally, the external part of the ear has microorganisms, however, some may be harmful and can cause infectious ear-related diseases. The middle ear is clear from microorganisms - clearly. Still, some microorganisms can invade and may cause infections.
  • Direct Inspection: Direct inspection in microbiology means the method of examination under a microscope or other medical visualization instruments. It allows specialists to identify microorganisms and make characterization of them. The techniques such as microscopic examination, phase-contrast microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Also, electron microscopy is the newest and provides detailed and high-resolution imaged information.
  • Dyed Preparative Analysis: Dyed preparative analysis is a technique that is used to see microorganisms under the microscope by dying in research laboratories. The specialists apply special dyes or stains on the sample to see the microorganisms clearly and to determine specifics, type, shape, size, and more. Different methods are also used that may differ from sample to sample.
  • Culture: Culture microbiology is a specialized technique to use the gain pure culture of microorganisms, they are made of single species or strains. With the help of culture microbiology, the samples are collected - and the production of compounds can be seen and their pathogenicity can be researched by the specialist or specialists. 
  • Antibiogram: An antibiogram is a blood test to determine the susceptibility or resistance of microorganisms. They provide needed information to prescribe antibiotics or drugs to treat infectious diseases caused by certain microorganisms. By applying different techniques such as antibiotic susceptibility tests, the specialists determine to values of the blood and more.


Serology in microbiology is a medical studying area that researches the antibodies or antigens in blood serum and other fluids of the body. To diagnose and research infectious diseases caused by microorganisms, serological tests are required.

  • Hepatitis Tests: Hepatitis means the inflammation of the liver caused by infections. To diagnose hepatitis, different tests are required. There are 5 types of hepatitis named Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Special tests are needed for each type of them, mostly antibody tests, and they are important to determine diagnosis and treatment.
  • ASO: ASO, also known as Anti-Streptolsyin O, is a serological test to determine antibodies against the streptolysin O toxin which is produced by certain bacteria. The sample of blood is taken, the serological test is applied to separate serum from other compounds, and results are reported. Additional tests may be required to support the ASO test. 
  • CRP: C-reactive protein or CRP is a microbiology test to measure the levels of CRP in the blood. When the liver sensed the presence of infection, a certain protein is produced responding to the inflammation. This can be used to diagnose bacterial infections and monitor these infections, or inflammations to determine the treatment process.
  • RF: RF, or Rheumatoid Factor test which is used to detect the presence of antibodies known as rheumatoid compounds in the blood. These rheumatoid compounds target healthy cells and issues which can cause autoimmune-related diseases. The sample blood is taken and sent to the laboratory to research and do RF measurements.


Hormones are chemical messengers in the body, and they are produced by the different glands and tissues around the body. These chemical messengers are essential to provide regulation order for growth, development, and especially for metabolism.

  • Thyroid Tests: Thyroid tests are a set of different tests to learn the functioning of the thyroid gland which is located in the neck. It produces the thyroid hormones which are responsible for growth, metabolism, development, and more. The most known thyroid test is the TSH test which is conducted to learn the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
  • Prostate: Instead of producing the hormones, the prostate gland is the one that is affected by hormones - especially male sex hormone. The prostate-related tests are focused on determining hormone levels including male sex hormone. Generally, these tests are combined with additional blood and different kinds of tests. Consulting the urologist would be good if you’re concerned about your prostate health.
  • Specific Antigen: Some specific and antigen-based tests are used to diagnose and research certain diseases. These antigens help to find or differentiate between strains in the microorganisms and must be conducted by specialists. Specific antigen tests include parasite-specific, bacterial-specific, viral-specific, or fungal-specific antigens. The choice of the antigen may differ according to the microorganism type.
  • Obesity Tests: Obesity tests are used to evaluate body composition and overall health status. For example, BMI - Body Mass Index is used to see the body fat of the patient based on height & weight. It provides quick information about the weight. Generally, obesity tests are conducted with a combination of other blood tests and research such as the medical & family history of the patient, diet, and more.
  • Inspection of Endocrinal Grands: Inspection of endocrinal glands includes the visual examination of the physical appearance and characteristics of the glands and parts which are related to them such as the thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, etc. Endocrinology is a medical studying area that making researches about the hormones and their functions along with the hormone-related diseases.


Biochemistry is a medical studying area that researches the connection between living organisms and their chemical situations such as functions, interactions with other cells and tissues, and more. 

  • Blood Glucose: Blood glucose or blood sugar means the concentration of glucose which is a kind of sugar in the bloodstream. Glucose is an essential source of energy for cells and can be thought of as an energy store. Abnormalities in the blood glucose level can cause different health situations such as hyperglycemia, diabetes, etc.
  • Diabetes Tests: Diabetes tests are used to diagnose and monitor diabetes, which is caused by high blood glucose - sugar blood levels. These tests help to find and identify the type of diabetes so that the treatment process can be done effectively by professionals. A hemoglobin test, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) can be applied to find out problems.
  • Blood Lipids: Blood lipids or blood fats are fatty compounds in our blood and bloodstream. Mainly, the cholesterol and triglycerides can be measured by them and carried through the bloodstream by the transport of lipids named lipoproteins. Total cholesterol, HDL or LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides which are mentioned in the first line can be measured and seen through certain tests related to the blood lipids.
  • Liver: Liver function tests are a group of blood tests to find the overall health of the liver. They measure enzymes, proteins, and compounds in the blood to learn the functionality of the liver to find out whether there are diseases or problems in the liver. Generally, these tests are protein-related in the blood and bloodstream.
  • Kidney Tests: Kidney function tests are a group of blood and urine tests that are applied to find out the function and overall health of the kidneys. Since the kidneys are responsible for filtering the waste products of the body, with the help of the kidney function test, the performance of it can be seen and measured.

Allergy Tests

Allergy tests are used to find out allergens that may trigger the allergic reaction of the patient. These allergic tests help to find the substances of a person who is allergic. Physicians and professionals can schedule proper management and treatment of the allergens when they’re seen in the allergy tests such as skin prick tests, blood tests, and patch tests. They all help to determine and treat the allergens of the patient by applying different techniques. 

If you’re experiencing abnormal reactions when you eat, drink, or touch something, consulting physicians and professionals would be good for your overall health.


Spec. Dr. Refiye Koşanoğlu She graduated from Ege University Faculty of Medicine in 1982. She is a member of the clinical microbiology association. In addition to her 23 years of public and 30 years of private laboratory experience, she has been working as a member of Trakya University Hepatitis and AIDS Combating Association. Infectious diseases and microbiologist Refiye KOŞANOĞLU speaks English. Areas of interest: All Laboratory studies Hepatitis Parasitology Microbiology Vaccine Studies Diagnosis of Meningitis
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