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Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled growth of cells in the body.
Healthy cells in the body divide and multiply, and new cells are formed to replace dead cells. These processes are controlled by DNA and this cycle takes place over a period of time. As a result of damage to DNA, cancerous cells divide uncontrollably differently from normal cells. Uncontrolled proliferating cells spread to tissues and organs over time and can cause various damages in the body.
Cancerous cells that multiply out of control come together to form a tumor. These formations are divided into 2 groups: benign tumors and malignant tumors. Benign tumors do not spread to surrounding tissues, but malignant tumors can spread to all parts of the body through the lymphatic system.
Types of Cancer
Cancers can occur in different cell types and organs. Although there are more than 100 different types of cancer, the most common ones can be listed as follows:
- Lung Cancer: It is caused by unbalanced and uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the lung. This type of cancer is among the most common types of cancer worldwide and can be fatal. Lung cancer can be triggered by smoking and air pollution. However, lung cancer can also occur in non-smokers, and the causes may include environmental factors and genetic predisposition.
- Breast cancer: It is the most common type of cancer in women. It is caused by the rapid and uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in breast tissue. Although the exact cause of breast cancer is unknown, age, genetic factors, family history and hormonal factors can affect the development of breast cancer.
- Prostate cancer: Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland. The prostate gland is a gland located just below the urethra and plays a role in the transportation of sperm. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Men over 50 years of age are most likely to develop it.
- Cancer of the colon and rectum: Colon and rectal cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the large intestine or rectum. This type of cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Symptoms include blood in the stool and changes in bowel movements. Early diagnosis is important.
- Stomach cancer: It occurs in cells in the stomach tissue. Stomach cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle factors can play a role in increasing the risk of stomach cancer.
- Pancreatic cancer: Pancreatic cancer is a type of cancer caused by abnormal growth of cells in the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ that produces digestive enzymes and important hormones such as insulin. This type of cancer is usually diagnosed at a later stage, as it is usually asymptomatic in the early stages.
- Skin cancer: Skin cancer usually develops as a result of sun exposure and is more common on light-colored areas of the skin that are more exposed to sunlight (such as the face, neck, hands, arms and legs).
- Lymphoma cancer: Lymphoma cancer is a type of cancer caused by abnormal growth of cells in the lymphatic system. Lymphoma is made up of a number of immune cells called the lymphatic system, which helps fight infections in the body. Lymphoma cancer is caused by defense cells called lymphocytes.
- Brain cancer: It can occur in tissues that are part of the central nervous system, such as the brain and cerebellum. Brain cancers are divided into two main groups: primary brain tumors and secondary brain tumors. Symptoms may include headaches, nausea and balance problems. Primary brain tumors originate from cells in brain tissue and are often not related to environmental factors. Secondary brain tumors occur when cancer cells that start in another part of the body spread to the brain.
- Blood cancer: Caused by an abnormal increase in white blood cells, which are blood cells. The blood production system is negatively affected by this type of cancer. Early diagnosis can increase treatment options and improve the success of treatment.
- Mouth cancer: Oral cancer is a type of cancer that develops in or around the mouth. It usually occurs in the lips, tongue, gums, cheeks, jaw, palate and front of the pharynx. Oral cancer is usually caused by abnormal growth of cells in the mouth. Oral cancer is particularly associated with risk factors such as smoking, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption and sun exposure. HPV infection can also increase the risk of oral cancer. It is more common in men than in women.
- Bladder cancer: The bladder is an organ where urine is stored and emptied, and this cancer usually starts in the epithelial cells inside the bladder. Bladder cancer usually presents with symptoms such as difficulty urinating, frequent urination, blood in the urine, pain or burning sensation. These symptoms can be signs of many diseases of the urinary tract, but they can also indicate a serious condition, including bladder cancer. Bladder cancer can often be asymptomatic in the early stages, so periodic medical check-ups are important
- Sudden weight gain or sudden weight loss
- Palpable mass under the skin
- Bleeding gums
- Growth or discoloration of moles or warts
- Chronic fatigue
- Recurrent, untimely vaginal bleeding
- Defecation problems
- Fever that usually occurs at night
- Unexplained bruising on the body
- These symptoms can be caused by different diseases other than cancer. For this reason, the most accurate diagnosis can be made by doctors through certain tests.