In our hospital, multidisciplinary treatment services are offered in audiology unit by our experts in pure audio audiometry, tympanometric examinations, stapes reflex test, otoacoustic emission, neonatal hearing screening and BERA tests.

What is Audiology?

Audiology is a medical field where hearing, balance, and related studies are done. An audiologist is a medical expert who focuses on identifying disorders of the auditory. Some of the audiology services are:

  • Hearing testing: Hearing tests are used to understand the patient’s hearing capacity.
  • Hearing aid service: These tests are used to understand what technologies are suitable for the patient.
  • Central auditory processing: Central auditory processing is used to understand what happens when the brain recognizes the sounds.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory System

The ears provide two functions for us; hearing and balance. The anatomy and physiology of the auditory system can be chaptered mainly four parts: 

  • Outer ear: Pinna or auricle and external auditory channel are situated here.
  • Tympanic membrane (eardrum): The tympanic membrane (eardrum) is between the outer ear and the middle ear.
  • Middle ear (tympanic cavity): The middle ear is consisting of ossicles, which are the three small bones that send sound waves to the inner ear and the Eustachian tube. The bones are: Malleus, Incus, Stapes.
  • Inner ear: Cochlea, Vestibule, and semicircular channels are in the inner ear.

Common Causes of Hearing Loss

As you age, hearing loss may occur very slowly. Conductive and sensorineural are the types of hearing loss. Additionally, there is another type that exists as a mix of these two.

Some of the common causes of hearing loss can be lined up as below:

  • Damage to the inner ear
  • Ruptured ear drum (Tympanic membrane perforation)
  • Ear infections, tumors, abnormal bone growth.
  • Build up of earwax

Some risk factors that might cause hearing loss are; Heredity, aging, noises, some medicines, and some illnesses.

To avoid hearing loss, the best thing to do is to stay away from any sort of loud noise.

Types of Hearing Tests

Hearing tests are to understand the degree of hearing loss. There are different types of hearing tests. Some of them are used for adults, some others for children and babies. Some of the hearing tests are:

  •  Bone conduction testing
  • Speech testing
  • Auditory brainstem response (ABR)
  • Tympanometry
  • Otoacoustic emissions test (OAE)
  • Pure-tone testing

After these tests, you will be informed that you have mild, moderate, or severe hearing loss. Your medical expert will tell you that every patient has different needs and which hearing device will help you more.

Interpretation of Audiograms

Audiogram is a graph that shows the patient’s ability to hear measured by an audiometer. This measurement is carried out for each ear separately and across a range of frequencies. By using an audiogram, medical experts understand the threshold of the patient’s hearing in a very quiet listening room. An audiogram can not detect hidden hearing loss.

The horizontal axis (x-axis) of the audiogram represents the frequency from lowest to highest. The vertical axis (y-axis) of the audiogram represents the intensity of sound in decibels.

Responses from the left ear are shown in blue, and the responses from the right ear are shown in red in an audiogram.

Hearing Aid Technology and Fitting

After a hearing test, you may be recommended a hearing aid by the doctors. Your medical expert will decide with you which hearing aid is the most suitable for you now. Your hearing test results will be considered to make a decision as well as your lifestyle, your previous experiences with a hearing aid device, and your expectations. For example, if you are a professional diver, you need a waterproof device, if you talk on the phone for long hours, Your device should be working well with your phone. You should talk to the medical expert about your personal preferences too.

Cochlear Implants and Other Implantable Devices

A Cochlear implant is an electronic device that improves the patient’s hearing, or in other saying that reduces hearing loss. Cochlear implants can not restore hearing. Cochlear implant helps people suffering from severe hearing loss because of inner ear damage. Most hearing aids amplify the sound as a cochlear implant bypass the damaged parts of the ear and deliver the signals to the hearing nerves. Cochlear implants can improve the ability to find where the sound comes from and the ability to listen in a noisy environment.

Tinnitus Evaluation and Management

When Doctors diagnose a patient with tinnitus they need to understand if there is an underlying reason. To understand that reason, the doctors ask questions about the patient’s medical past and examine the other body parts such as the head and neck and as well as the ears. Describing what kind of tinnitus you have will help your doctor to find out a possible underlying reason for your tinnitus. Treatment of tinnitus depends on if there is an underlying reason and if so the content of the underlying reason. Your doctor then might be able to reduce the symptoms of tinnitus.

Vestibular Assessment and Rehabilitation

Vestibular assessment and rehabilitation can help people suffering from the symptoms of  vertigo and labyrinthitis. During vestibular rehabilitation therapy, you are requested to do exercises that helps managing dizziness and imbalance. These exercises help you to improve your life quality.

Vestibular rehabilitation therapy may help people who suffer the symptoms of;

  • Vertigo
  • Stroke
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Vestibular neuritis
  • Bening paroxysmal positional vertigo
  • Migraine headache
  • Labyrinthitis
  • Meniere disease

Eye movement control, balance retraining, and stretching and strengthening are included in the exercises of vestibular rehabilitation. Your medical expert will provide you with the most suitable exercise plan that suits your personal needs.


Odiologist Özgür UğurtaySpec. Audiologist Özgür Uğurtay received the title of Audiology Specialist in 9 Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Audiology in 2006, and continued his studies in the same clinic for 2 years as a Research Assistant. During this period, he attended many courses and seminars on vertigo and voice disorders. Especially in Belgium and Sweden, he completed 11 separate education programs on Internal Ear Diseases and the Cochlear Implant, and also worked abroad as a clinician, responsible for education in these fields. Özgür Uğurtay, who has oral presentations at international and national meetings, is a member of the Turkish Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery Association.   Areas of interest;   Approaches to diagnosis in Vertigo; Positional Tests, Videonystagmography, Video Head Impulse Test (VHİT), Dynamic Posturography, Caloric test Electrocochleography Vemp test Approaches to treatment in vertigo All manoeuvring procedures for positional vertigo (BPPV), Balance rehabilitation, Vestibular rehabilitation. Approaches to diagnosis of voice disorders; Videosingostroboscopic evaluation, Computerized sound analysis Voice therapy  Stuttering Treatment Cochlear Implant Hearing Assessment and Rehabilitation BERA (ABR) Autoacute emission test
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