When both eyes are misaligned, it is called Crossed Eye or Strabismus. This might be unnoticeable, rarely or often. Unnoticeable crossed eyes can only be seen during the examinations and the perception of depth which is the highest level of binocular vision is normal. Crossed eye syndrome usually starts rarely and evolves to a permanent situation. In turned crossed eye syndromes becomes permanent in months however it takes a long time for the out turned crossed eyes to become permanent.
Although it is not an inherited condition, it is mostly observed in the patients whose family has lazy eye, high refractive failure problems. In situations related to muscle paralysis with elderly patients, it is mostly because of high blood pressure, diabetes, coronary diseases, head traumas. It might also be congenital. When it is not caused congenitally or by muscle paralysis, the reasons might be myopia, hypermetropia or astigmatism. On some occasions, it might be caused by some clinical features such as Duane Syndrome, Brown Syndrome
Crossed eyes syndrome and lazy eye syndrome can be cause and affect relation. One crossed eye might lead to lazy eye syndrome or on some occasions, lazy eye syndrome might end up with crossed eyes syndrome.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CROSSED EYES (STRABISMUS)
In certain types of strabismus, treatment with eyeglasses is successful. It is treated very well when the child wears the glasses. Later stages, the patient learns to control the eyes and doesn’t need to wear glasses anymore.
On some occasions, the glasses can partially help the strabismus. Then, a surgical intervention is needed.
During the operation, the muscles which lead to strabismus might be replaced, shortened, or strengthened. Strabismus is not an esthetical concern but a serious problem which might lead to visual impairment when not treated.
Earlier the treatment is started, more successful it is. A surgical intervention in the early ages is highly recommended however it is also possible to have the treatment as adult.
Adults can also adapt to use both eyes just like infants after the treatments
Macula Hole Treatment
Retinal layer of the eye consists of nerve cells which transmits the light coming from outside to the brain. If the eye is like a camera, retina is the film. Macular area is just in the middle of this section. In the middle of the macula, there is the Foveo which is at the size of a pinhead where the light focuses. Foveo, also known as the yellow spot, gives the retina layer the abilities of central vision and detailed vision.
Macular hole is the tear which appears right in the middle of the centre of vision. A black dot appears in the vision of the patient which affects it badly.
Recognizing the faces, reading newspapers or such activities are highly affected because of this condition. Since the other parts of the retina are normal, environmental vision is not affected.
The most common reason of the macular hole is called “idiopathic” which is not related to anything and happens by itself. Age is somehow related to it. Other than that, traumas on the eye might also lead to macular hole.
Even the factors which lead to macular hole are not exactly know, it is clear that the changes on the eye are mostly related to age. The intra ocular fluid, called Vitreous, shrinks by time, applies a pull force to the centre of sight and this force creates a hole on this area.
Treatment of macular hole with medicine is not possible, the only treatment can be done is vitrectomy surgery. The vitreous fluid is cleaned, the membranes are pealed, and a gas is injected into the eye. The vision might be lower after the surgery because of the gas inside the eye and the vision is corrected when the intraocular fluid replaces the gas by itself. The success rate of the operation, which means closing the macular hole is %80-90. However, the rate is lower after the trauma or long-term holes. Macular hole surgery can be performed under local or general anaesthesia. It is recommended to sleep on tummy for a while after the surgery to be sure that the hole is completely closed.